Beginner’s Guide to Game Testing
Modern games are some of the most complex software expressions in existence, so you cannot simply use existing software testing processes to test them. Game testing nowadays requires the right understanding of the gaming industry, title publishing, mass server loading, level architecture and advanced user experience. It can often entail testing rarely used in other software scenarios such as AI testing, multiplayer networking, audio testing, Physics and realism, and API integration.
Game Testing Processes
The gaming industry is, so far, the most rapidly expanding software sector. As such, the sophistication and complexity of modern titles bring with them a diverse range of features (both software and hardware), UI, functionality due to interaction, server concerns with online multiplayer options and security regarding accounts and payments.
Here are the most common game testing processes:
Although not exclusive to the gaming industry, alpha and beta testing are being associated with this market sector often due to common exposure. Alpha testing is a form of acceptance testing done mainly by in-house QA teams. Meanwhile, beta testing (done after an internal full-cycle alpha test) is the testing stage where the company releases the game to a few external user groups to 'real world' test as many conceivable usage scenarios as possible.
Using a combination of automated testing and manual testing, all current features are tested through functional testing. Functional testing is done to determine process, load durability, and user logic. From this, concerns over redundancies, UI flow, and cross-platform and browser breakdown are assessed.
Also known as confidence, sanity or build verification testing, smoke testing is a preliminary test performed to reveal simple failures touching the main functions and updates on the game. Failures shown through smoke testing are severe enough to reject a release and determine that a game should be subjected to further refined testing or modification.
Automated testing comes with its sets of advantages, unlike manual testing. Automated testing is executed with the assistance of tools, scripts, and software, which helps improve the accuracy of tests done by humans, helps developers find bugs faster and increases test coverage since multiple tools can be deployed simultaneously. But keep in mind that automated testing should be included where it is appropriate to do so for time and budget benefits.
Localization testing is done to make technical corrections and review translation work of game scripts (cataloged collections of all the in-game text). Localization testers native to the area where a game is marketed may be hired to ensure the accuracy and quality of the game localization.
Game Testing Phases
Below are the game testing phases, which are somewhat similar to the software testing life cycle (STLC):
Gathering of Requirements
To create an effective game testing strategy, testers should have a thorough understanding of the following aspects of the game:
- Pointing System
Without thorough knowledge of the following requirements and the software testing process, then it would be possible for testers to miss defects or other more errors which can affect the final product.
Preparation of Game Test Strategy
In this phase, the Test Strategy document is prepared, which must include sections like:
- Number of testing cycles
- Testing types to be conducted
- Risk-based test analysis
- Service Level Agreements (SLAs)
- Risks and mitigation
- Defect logging process
- Reporting process
Game developers and testers both should be well familiar with the software testing process and development process and strategy of the game development phase and the important specifics that are included during each stage.
Designing of Test Cases
Testers should make both positive and negative test cases. Here are some effective test case design techniques:
- Critical Path Test - a technique used to identify the critical paths in the game, which helps reveal the dependencies causing the failures
- Exception Path Testing - helps in documenting alternate paths and exception paths
- Traditional black-box testing techniques - boundary value analysis, equivalence partitioning and error guessing
Execution of Game Test Cases
- To reveal more defects, game test cases must be executed in the identified environment with different software and hardware configuration.
- To further improve the quality of the game, alpha, beta, and respective age group testing are necessary.
- Another significant aspect of game testing is content testing, which is often partially ignored in many projects. It addresses the following concerns:
- Is the content appropriate for the gamers?
- How easy is it to understand the content of the game?
Recording of Test Results
The development team should record test results as a movie or a series of screenshots so they can review the behavior effectively and can use their records. This can also be used as a form of better communication with the game testers and developers. Having a detailed record of the test can make it better for the developers to understand the defects found by the testers and avoid miscommunication.
Creation of Defect Log
All the defects should be logged, prioritized, categorized, and tracked effectively. Creating the defect log will help game developers in their next title works.
To Do’s When Testing Games
Games need to be tested before, during, and after their release in the market. Once released, gamers expect a near flawless experience, and it is game testers’ job to ensure that gamers’ expectation will be met, even surpassed.
Here are some tips for testing game titles:
Review the game rules.
Evaluate and verify the consistency of the predefined game rules. Also, check if the game win determination is aligned with the game rules. This also includes checking the accuracy of the point system, health and mana regeneration, as well as the upgrade and level ups of the characters.
Functionality includes game progress and outcomes, multiplayer games, and handling of incomplete and restarted games. Functional testing is the most practical way to verify the correctness of game elements by playing the actual game from start to finish.
Check for compliance.
Most games, especially console games, do not have a stand-alone system and need interaction with hardware devices. Compatibility testing needs to be performed to ensure the compatibility of hardware pin assignments with both software and hardware. Compatibility testing is especially important to console game as this form of testing ensures high-quality performance. In a marketing perspective, proper compatibility testing will ensure your brand’s reputation to clients.
Make sure it is localized.
It is common for most role-playing and story-based games to have difficulty translating east to west and vice versa. The work of localization testers, most often, involves facing a spreadsheet-like interface that lists all game scripts and their corresponding translation.
Do the soaking.
Game soaking is done by exposing a game for an excessively long period of execution. The purpose of this activity is to test if the game will display unreleased segments of memory and mathematical rounding discrepancies. These errors can cause problems as they can affect game parameters involving numerical computations, such as pointing system and health value consumption.
Perform security test.
Security is vital for games, especially for network capable, multi-user ones. Games that need security testing most are those with role escalation, prizes, virtual money, and selling trinkets.
Game testing is not an easy job as it is impossible to fix everything. But as game testers, you just have to bear in mind that what you are doing is for gamers’ convenience and entertainment.